SUMMARY: Mahatma Gandhi (2 October 1869-30 January 1948) Gandhi is known for peaceful protests that brought about great change.
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Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Karamchand Gandi, Mahatma or Great Soul, Father of the Nation and Bapu Father Gandhiji, was born on October 2, 1869 and died on January 30, 1948. Mahatma Gandhi helped the Indian independence movement and is considered the father of the great movement. He spent his time in South Africa working to fight discrimination and while there he created his famous concept of Satyagraha. Satyagraha is a non-violent way to protest against injustices. Gandhi spent the last of his years working to remove British rule from India and help raise the poor class.
When Gandhi was 13 years old, he was placed in an arranged marriage and married Kasturba. Gandhi and Kasturba had four sons. Kasturba died in 1944, but supported Gandhi through all of this travels. In September 1888, Gandhi left India at the age of 18 to become a lawyer in Long. He left his wife and newborn son behind while he spent his first three months attempting to make himself into an Englishman. He bought new suits, took French, dance lessons and learned the violin. After the three months ended, Gandhi decided that the extras in life were a waste of time and money. During the next three years in London, Gandhi focused on being a student and lived simple life. On June 10, 1891, after focusing and studying, Gandhi passed bar and moved back to India. Back in India, he practiced law but was unsuccessful and was offered a position in South Africa.
Gandhi arrived in South Africa in May 1893. Once again, he left his family behind in India. During a business trip taken after he arrived in South Africa, Gandhi became resilient to discrimination. On this trip, Gandhi was asked to visit Transvaal province of South Africa. He arrived at the Pietermartizburg train station and was told by railroad officials that he needed to sit in the third class passenger car. Gandhi had already purchased tickets for the first class car and refused to move. He was escorted off the train by police. After talking to other Indians that were living and working in South Africa, he learned they were going through the same experiences. That is when Gandhi decided to fight and change the discriminatory practices.
Over the next twenty years, Gandhi worked in South Africa to better Indians rights. The first three years he educated himself about the Indian laws, grievances, wrote letters to officials and completed petitions. May 22, 1894 the NIC or Natal Indian Congress was established by Gandhi. NIC was created and supported by wealthy Indians, but expanded and accepted any class of Indians. In a short time, Gandhi became a leader for the Indian community and was recognized in newspaper in India and England.
When 1901 arrived, Gandhi decided it was time to leave South Africa and move back to India. Once in India he decided to settle in Bombay (now Mombai) and practice law and politics. He was unable to fulfill that dream. He received a notice that he was needed back in South Africa to fight Joseph Chamberlain who was with the British Colonial Secretary. Joseph Chamberlain was sent to South Africa to gift thirty five million pounds to heal the fight between the British and the Boers. Gandhi tried to move Chamberlain in Natal and was unsuccessful. He followed Chamberlain to Transvaal where the authorities would not let Gandhi in. Gandhi decided to stay and fight for the Indians. He soon had a law office set up in Johannesburg.
In 1906, Gandhi decided to take a vow of celibacy. He takes this vow to better himself and serve his senses. To Gandhi, all of humanity was his family and to protect them, he needed to focus on them.